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Management and the Technology Professional

Leadership and management issues in the workplace








What is leadership?

What is management?






History shows that leadership has been valued as a skill or characteristic, e.g. religious leaders.

Management of the self has been the subject of philosophy and psychology debates for a long time, e.g. discipline and motivation.






Management applied to business is relatively new since the Industrial Revolution (after 1760s).






F. W. Taylor

Scientific management is the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of re-designing the work process to increase efficiency.

  1. Study the way employees perform their tasks, gather informal job knowledge that employees possess and experiment with ways to improve the performance of those tasks.
  2. Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures.
  3. Carefully select employees so they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures.
  4. Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level.





Mary Parker Follett






The Hawthorne Studies


Does employee performance increase with an increase in lighting conditions?




Hawthorne Studies found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was increased or decreased.

Factors influencing behaviour in the study became known as the Hawthorne Effect:





Peter Drucker

The goal [of management] is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of each individual.

"The relationship [between managers and staff] is far more like that between the conductor of an orchestra and the instrumentalist than it is like the traditional superior/subordinate relationship. The superior in an organization employing knowledge workers cannot, as a rule, do the work of the supposed subordinate any more than the conductor of an orchestra can play the tuba. In turn, the knowledge worker is dependent on the superior to give direction and, above all, to define what the "score" is for the entire organization, that is, what are standards and values, performance and results. And just as an orchestra can sabotage even the ablest conductor – and certainly even the most autocratic one – a knowledge organization can easily sabotage even the ablest, let alone the most autocratic, superior."





The purpose of leadership as an activity is to influence the behaviour of people towards an objective.

The purpose of management as an activity is to increase the effectiveness of an organisation through planning, organising and controlling of resources.







The process of management control may be applied to individuals, groups and organizations.








An organisational procedure is rule or routine to perform a specific task. Standard operating procedures tend to be considered as the most effective way to perform a task.





Bureaucratic management use authority as the basis of control processes.

Objective management use metrics and benchmarks as the basis of control processes.

Normative management use social and peer pressure as the basis of control processes.

Concertive management use working groups as the basis of control processes.





People learn organisational ethics, culture and values:

  1. Management activities, including organisational procedures
  2. Formal social practices
  3. Organisational rites and ceremonies
  4. Organisational language
  5. Signs, symbols and stories





Common factors for the behaviour of people within an organisation.








Pavlov's dogs is a widely recognized pattern of behaviour.




Source: Cryer, L. (2003). Learning theories. Retrieved from http://www.northern.ac.uk/learning/NCMaterial/Psychology/lifespan%20folder/Learningtheories.htm





Pygmalion effect is a widely recognized pattern of behaviour.




Source: Williams, M. (2009). Taking thoughts captive. Retrieved from http://www.meghanwilliams.com/ugb.html





System archetypes are tools that identify common patterns of behaviour and provide insight into structures in an organisation. Peter Senge brought systems thinking into popular use through his book, The Fifth Discipline.





Success to the successful system archetype.








Limits to growth system archetype.








Shifting the burden system archetype.








Tragedy of the commons system archetype.








The purpose of leadership as an activity is to influence the behaviour of people towards an objective.

The purpose of management as an activity is to increase the effectiveness of an organisation through planning, organising and controlling of resources.


How do we measure the performance of leaders and managers?